The hydrocarbons exploration in the Caguán-Putumayo Basin has been focused on the identification of structural traps cored by Cretaceous and Cenozoic formations. Presently the exploration is directed to the identification of plays in combined structural –stratigraphic traps, and that may represent the northern extension of the same type of plays producing which may contain up to 3000 MBOIP in the Oriente basin in Ecuador. Inside the basin it is also assumed that there must be an extension of the Llanos heavy oil belt into the Caguán-Putumayo Basin and the existence of a Paleozoic petroleum system. The geochemical properties of Villeta and Caballos formations as source and reservoir rocks and the pre-Miocene and Miocene traps in synchronism with a major migration event indicate the high prospectivity of the Caguán-Putumayo Basin.

The hydrocarbon potential of the Caguán–Putumayo Basin has been estimated to swing between 2200 MBO (high) and 255 MBO (low).

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